Rest in Buryat Republic
Buryat Republic is situated in the center of Asian continent in Eastern Siberia, lying from the west to the east between 98°40` and 116°55` of East longitude, and from the north to the south between 57°15` and 49°55` of North latitude.
Large territory, elongated from the north to the south in the form of crescent, determines different conditions of husbandry in the region. There is a significant remoteness of the republic from the center of the country (distance to Moscow – 5532 km).
Buryat Republic is included into mountain zone, which takes most part of the south of East Siberia. The relief is characterized by powerful mountain ranges and vast, deep, and sometimes, enclosed intermountain hollows. The area of the mountains is 4 times bigger than the area of lowlands. Buryat Republic is raised slightly above the sea level. The lowest point is the level of Lake Baikal – 456 m, the highest point is peak Munku-Sardyk in the East Sayan – 3491 m above the sea level.
The south part of republic, presented by Selenginskoye midlands, occupies a significant part of the Selenga River, which is the main inflow of Baikal with all its large feeders; it is characterized by predominance of the mounts of the middle height (1000-1500 m above sea level).
High ranges of Pribaikalie are adjacent to Lake Baikal; they are separated by wide intermountain hollows. Highlands of East Sayan stretching from the north-west to the south-east on the distance about 1000 km by width about 200-300 km and overtopping at the central part of the ranges on more than 2500-3000 m in their belt. The belt of Pribaikalie Mountains is continued with the Khamar-Daban, Ulan-Burgasy, Barguzinsky, Ikatsky, and Baikalsky ranges.
The north Pribaikalie is continued with the ranges of Stanovoye highland: South-Muisky, North-Muisky, Udokan and Kalarsky.
Vitimskoye tableland is adjacent to the north-east Pribaikalie. The north Pribaikalie is characterized by permafrost, which depth may be up to 0.5 m.
The locality southward of Ulan-Ude; the climate of Buryat Republic is harsh continental with cold winter and hot summer. Winter is cold with dry frost and little quantity of snow. Spring is windy with freezings almost without downfalls. Summer is short with hot days and cool nights, with lots of downfalls in July and August. Autumn comes unnoticeably without a significant change of weather; sometimes it can be long and warm. The average temperature: in summer - …+18.5 C, in winter - …-22 C, annual average temperature - …-1.6 C. The annual average amount of downfalls – 244 mm.
An essential feature of the climate of Buryat Republic is a significant duration of solar radiance – 1900-2200 hours; sometimes it exceeds the south regions of Russia.
Water resources of Buryat Republic are represented by surface waters and ground waters. More than 30 000 rivers run on its territory; their total length is about 150 000 km. Only 25 of them can be considered as big ones and middle ones. Therefore more than 99 % of rivers of republic are small ones; their length is less than 200 km. Rivers of republic refer to three large water reservoirs: Lake Baikal, the Angara River and the Lena River. Thereby 52 % of the territory of Buryat Republic is situated in the reservoir of Lake Baikal.
There are about 35 thousands lakes on the territory of republic; their total area is about 1795 square kilometers. The most part of Lake Baikal is situated on the territory of Buryat Republic (60% of coastal line).
Flora and fauna
Buryat Republic has a unique and various flora and fauna. At the present time 446 species of terrestrial vertebrates are known on its territory. Amphibians of Buryat Republic are represented by 6 species from 2 classes. There are 7 species of reptiles. Avifauna of republic is represented by 348 species of birds. Mammals are represented by 85 species from 7 classes.
Lake Baikal and its surrounding territory are inhabited by 2500 different species of fish and birds, 250 of them are endemic. The symbol of Baikal is Baikal seal (nerpa). The mystery of appearing of this mammal in Baikal is still unsolved.
The most territory of Buryat Republic is forest (83% of the area). Wild rosemary bloom in spring. Medicinal herbs are practiced with success in folk and Tibet medicine. Sables, squirrels, foxes, Siberian striped weasels, ermines, lynxes, roe deers, Siberian stags, elks, wild pigs and bears live in taiga.
Baikal sturgeon, davatchan, whitefish, taimen and tench are in the list of Red Book of Russia and Buryat Republic.
There are more than 700 deposits of different extractable resources on the territory of Buryat Republic. They are: 247 – gold, 7 – wolframium, 13 – uranium, 4 – polymetals, 2 – molybdenum, 2 – beryllium, 1 – stannic, 1 – aluminum and others.