Khakassia is situated in the south-west part of Eastern Siberia, on the left bank of the Yenisei River, taking a significant part of Khakassko-Minusinskaya hollow. Its length from the north to the south is 460 km; from the east to the west (in the widest part) is 200 km. In the north, the east and the south-east the territory of Republic is on the border of Krasnoyarsk region, in the west part – of Kemerovsky region, in the south – of Tyva Republic, in the south-west – of Altai Republic. Total area of Khakassia is 61.9 thousands sq. km. Population is 583.2 thousands people. Proportion of Republic in the constitution of Russia is 0.4 % both in the area and the population. Density of population is 9.4 persons per square kilometer. National content of Republic: Russians – 79.5 %, Khakasses – 11.1 %, Ukrainians – 2.3 %, Germans – 2 %, other nationalities – 5.1 %.
The climate of Khakassia is sharply continental, with cold winter and hot summer. Harsh variations of air temperature and downfalls are indicative. The average temperature in July - …+19 C, in January - …-20 C. April and May are usually windy; the speed of wind may reach 17-20 m/s.
The relief of Khakassia differs with a significant complication, being presented by combination of mountain ranges and intermountain lows. True altitudes oscillate from 200 to 3400 m above sea level. The whole west and the south of Khakassia are forested (3.3 millions ha).
The most significant rivers of Khakassia are the Yenisei and its left inflow the Abakan. The famous Siberian Lake Shira with its curative water and mud is situated in Khakassia. Storage reservoirs of Sayano-Shushenskaya and Krasnoyarskaya hydro power plants take a large territory.
Khakassia is rich for mineral resources.
Fauna of Khakassia is rich and various. Least of all studied class of animals is Invertebrates. It is almost impossible to say how many of them live in Khakassia. Avifauna is represented by 317 species. Inclement winters do not prevent normal life-sustaining activities of birds. Class of mammals of Khakassia is also rich; it contains 76 species, such as: brown hare, musk rat, American mink, beaver and wild boar. Wild dog, snow leopard and wild sheep are extremely uncommon animals; they are in the list of Red Book of Russia.
Khakassia is an industrial-agrarian republic. Nowadays Republic has a powerful industrial and agricultural potential: energetic and mining, timber cutting and woodworking industries, machinery manufacturing, metallurgy, agricultural industry, light and food manufacturing industry.
There are 5 cities, and more than 20 settlements in Republic. The capital of Khakassia is Abakan.
How can you get there? By plane!
“Vladivostok-Avia” company performs flights Moscow – Abakan 4 times a week (Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday and Sunday), travelling time – 4 hours 40 minutes.
You can get to Abakan by train from Krasnoyarsk, departure is everyday at 16.00 (№ 124) and 17.10 (№658) (the changes in the timetable are possible, so you should find it out beforehand). There are 2 trains from Moscow to Abakan: №066 (on Sundays at 22.55 from Moscow (Yaroslavsky Railway Station), arrival at 2.00), and №068 (everyday, except for Sundays, at 22.55 from Moscow (Yaroslavsky Railway Station), arrival at 2.00).
From Irkutsk to Abakan you can get by train №659 (departure at 13.20, arrival at 5.50), as well as from Novosibirsk by the same trains as from Moscow: №066 arrives at 2.47 (standing for 30 minutes, on Wednesdays) and №068 arrives at 2.47 (standing for 30 minutes, except for Wednesdays). Besides, you can get there by train №068 from Tomsk (trailing car), which arrives in Tomsk at 4.20.
Krasnoyarsk - Abakan (about 14 hours)
Moscow - Abakan (75 hours)
Novosibirsk, Russia - Abakan (about 23 hours)
Tomsk - Abakan (about 36 hours)
Irkutsk - Abakan (about 17 hours)
The Sights of Khakassia
The Big Salbyksky Burial Mount – one of the evidences of mighty and wealth of Tatar Republic; it is a stone-earth pyramide with height of up to 30 meters;
Sulekskaya Neolithic Rupestrian Drawings – it is a masterpiece of art of epoch of Tukhtyat culture, it is dated to Okunevskaya culture of 2 century AC;
Podkunenskaya Neolithic Rupestrian Drawings – 323 figures of people, deers, goats, horses, camels, birds and bears; the drawings are dated to 2 century AC;
Neolithic Rupestrian Drawings as well as Andronovskyie and Tagarskyie monuments – figures of archers in pointed headdress with axes, a shaman with a tambourine and an arrow in his hands, scenes of hunting by horses on roe deers;
Boyarskaya Neolithic Rupestrian Drawings – it is separated into Big and Small Neolithic Rupestrian Drawings; Big is situated in the upper narrow of the range; Small is situated a bit lower in 400 meters from Big;
Onlo Fortress – it is a natural-historic monument, organized for keeping steppe phytocoenoses and historical places related to dwelling sites of ancient people;
The Medieval Castle – they are 5 military constructions created for defending from incursions of neighbouring tribes;
Oglakhtinskaya Fortress – it is situated on the left bank of the Yenisei River, 40 km lower than Abakan; it is a fortified stone wall, combined of plates of Devonian peschatnik; its width is up to 2 m, its height is up to 1 m;
Paleolithic Dwelling Site – it is the most ancient dwelling site of “homo sapiens” on the territory of Khakassia; there are 2 caves not far from this dwelling site, they are both of undoubted interest;
Numerous archaeological monuments, situated not far from Solenoozyornoye settlement, near Lake Tus;
Medieval Fortress and carvings on Chalpan Mountain (Shirinsky district, Lake Bele);
Medieval Fortress (Chebaki settlement, Shirinsky district);
Fortress, Okunev carving (in 4 km from Kobyakov village, Shirinsky district); its construction and functioning appertain to IX-XII centuries AD, characterized by feudal disunity and military conflicts.
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